Developmental analysis by histology, histochemistry, and SEM revealed a significant reduction in acellular cementum formation on Bsp-/-. Acellular extrinsic fiber cementum: a thin layer typically of μm thickness extending from the coronal extent of the root throughout, consisting of a mineralized. Acellular cementum Cellular cementum First formed cementum Formed after acellular cementum Most of it is formed before the tooth.

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Subsequently, findings supportive of the alternative epithelial hypothesis have been accumulated in in vitro [63][64][65] and in vivo studies [66][67][68]. The cells of cementum are the entrapped cementoblasts, the cementocytes. Unmineralized cementum is seen as thin precementum or cementoid on AEFC. Osteoblasts were also recently suggested to create the alternating lamellae in a similar fashion in rat compact bone [51].

Characterization of the insoluble collagens of bovine dental cementum. Thickness may range from 0.

Cementum – Classification | School of Dental Medicine | University of Pittsburgh

Supplementary Material Supplementary material: At the same time, bone sialoprotein and osteopontin become detectable in the mineralized CIFC. It plays no part in tooth anchorage.

Intrinsic fibers emerged in close and parallel association with the finger-like processes Fig. The external dentin is mineralized much faster than in AEFC genesis. Periodontal ligament fibers are arranged in parallel with the root surface. Unlike ameloblasts and odontoblastswhich leave no cellular bodies in their secreted products, during the later steps within the stage of appositionmany of the cementoblasts become entrapped by the acelluar they produce, becoming cementocytes.

Cementumm mineralization of the external dentin proceeds outward and eventually reaches the base of fiber fringe.


EMT is a normal phenomenon in embryos in several developing organs, e. The role of BSP in acellular cementogenesis is likely to be in promoting mineralization at the root surface to anchor PDL fibers and provide strong attachment of the tooth to the alveolar bone. We have demonstrated that reduction of PP ecmentumin turn, promotes increased acellular cementum formation Foster et al.

At the same time bone sialoprotein and osteopontin, secreted from cementoblasts, become detectable in the cementum. Jones [2] added these fibers to items of cementum classification, and Schroeder [3] established the current classification, which is now widely used in the dental field.

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. As a result, due to the discrepancy in surface area, the epithelial sheath is stretched out and fragmented into epithelial cell rests of Malassez. Primary antibodies included rabbit anti-BSP 1: OPN functions as an inhibitor of hydroxyapatite crystal growth in vitro and in vivo Hunter et al.

Histology of human cementum: Its structure, function, and development

Connect Tissue Res B Scanning electron micrograph showing the alternating lamellae. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Because of their dense packing, the individual Sharpey’s fibers that form the bulk of the matrix may no longer be identifiable as individual fibers within the cementum layer.

Hence, the intermediate cementum will be re-examined here.

It is proposed that proteoglycans inhibit mineralization of collagen fibrils by possessing specific sites on collagen fibrils normally destined to be filled with hydroxyapatite. The organic matrix of cementum consists predominantly of collagens.

It is also possible that another function of BSP e. Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences.

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Epithelial Dlx-2 homeogene expression and cementogenesis. The following section is fundamentally based on previous reports [3][4][6][7][8][9][47]in which developing human premolars were observed from apical to cervical regions to follow cementogenesis. Such CIFC also appears as reparative cementum which fills resorbed root surfaces.


The second group believes that the intermediate cementum is not a part of dentin, but an enameloid-like tissue produced by the epithelial root sheath. WT molars, concentrated in the cervical roots Figs.

Great efforts have been made, to identify unique cementum-specific marker proteins.

Osteopontin deficiency increases mineral content and mineral crystallinity in mouse bone. At this point the fiber fringe is organized into extrinsic fibers and the tooth anchorage system is established in the cervical region Fig. This cementum contains cementocytes in a matrix composed almost exclusively of intrinsic fiber cementum. Intermediate cementum The intermediate cementum has confused dental histologists since it first appeared in the literature and its origin is still controversial in the dental histological field.

Cementum – Classification

It is found on the apical third of the root and in furcations i. A majority of previous studies revealed interdigitation of extrinsic fibers and dentin matrix fibers and adellular suggested that cementum and dentin were firmly united by the fiber interdigitation and mineralization [4][6][7][8][9].

The mechanism by which the fiber fringe connects to the principal fibers is still unknown. This interface is not as defined, either clinically or histologically, as that of the dentinoenamel junction DEJgiven that cementum and dentin are of common embryological background, unlike that of enamel and dentin.